What is ADAS (Level 2 and below)?
Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) is a technology that helps drivers to drive safely and efficiently. It is a combination of sensors, cameras, and other technologies that work together to help drivers monitor their speed, maintain their lane, and avoid collisions. ADAS can be found in many modern cars, and it is becoming increasingly popular as more and more cars are equipped with this technology.
In this article, we will discuss the different levels of ADAS, from basic to advanced, and explain how each one works. We will also discuss the benefits of ADAS and how it can help drivers stay safe on the road.
Speed Limit System
The speed limit system is a basic level of ADAS that automatically adjusts the car’s speed to the speed limit. This system helps drivers stay within the speed limit and avoid getting speeding tickets.
Advanced Cruise Control
Advanced cruise control is a more advanced level of ADAS that can automatically accelerate, slow down, and maintain a safe distance from other vehicles. This system uses sensors to detect the speed and distance of other vehicles and adjust the car’s speed accordingly.
Traction Control System
The traction control system (TCS) is designed to detect when a loss of traction occurs among the car’s wheels and automatically apply the brakes to that individual wheel or cut down the car’s engine power to the slipping wheel. This system uses the same wheel speed sensors as the anti-lock braking systems.
Electronic Stability Control
Electronic stability control (ESC) helps prevent loss of control in curves and emergency steering maneuvers by stabilizing the car when it begins to veer off the intended path. The ESC system can lessen the car’s speed and activate individual brakes to prevent understeer and oversteer.
Parking sensors are proximity sensors for road vehicles designed to alert drivers of obstacles while parking. These systems use either electromagnetic or ultrasonic sensors to scan the vehicle’s surroundings for objects. When the driver initiates parking, audio warnings can notify the driver of the distance between the vehicle and its surrounding objects.
Automatic Parking Assist
Automatic parking assist controls parking functions, including steering, braking, and acceleration, to assist drivers in parking. This technology uses sensors, radars, and cameras to take autonomous control of parking tasks, helping drivers safely and securely store their vehicles without damaging them or other cars parked nearby.
Driver Emergency Stop Assist
Driver emergency stop assist facilitates emergency counteract measures if the driver falls asleep or does not perform any driving actions like pressing the accelerator, brake, or moving steering wheel after a long period of time. Then the car will send audio, visual, and physical signals to the driver. If the driver does not wake up after these signals, the system will stop safely, position the vehicle away from oncoming traffic, and turn on the hazard warning lights.
Hill Descent Control
Hill descent control is a driver assistant system that helps maintain a safe speed when driving down a hill and allows a controlled hill descent in rough terrain without any brake input from the driver. These systems are typically enacted if the vehicle moves faster than 15 to 20 miles per hour when driving down. This system works by pulsing the braking system and controlling each wheel independently to maintain traction.
Lane Centering Assist
Lane centering assistance is currently the highest level of lane monitoring technology and this system proactively keeps the vehicle centered within the lane it is traveling. It utilizes automatic steering functionality to make constant adjustments based on road marking information from the front mounted camera.
Lane Departure Warning System
The lane departure warning system is designed to warn the driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its lane on freeways and arterial roads. An LDW system uses cameras to monitor lane markings to determine if the driver unintentionally begins to drift. This system does not take control of the vehicle to help sway the car back into the safety zone but instead sends an audio or visual alert to the driver.
Lane Change Assistance
This assistant informs the driver of potential hazards when changing lanes on roads and highways with several lanes. When a driver intends to make a lane change, the vehicle will notify the driver through an audio or visual alert when a car is approaching from behind or is in the vehicle’s blind spot. The visual alert may appear in the dashboard heads-up display or exterior rear view mirrors.
Rain sensors detect water and automatically trigger electrical actions such as the raising of open windows and the closing of open convertible tops. A range sensor can also take in the frequency of rain droplets to automatically trigger windshield wipers with an accurate speed for the corresponding rainfall.
Collision Avoidance System
A collision avoidance system, also known as a pre-crash system, forward collision warning system, or collision mitigation system, is designed to help prevent avoidable crashes. This system uses various technologies and sensors such as radar, lasers, cameras, GPS, and artificial intelligence. Not all collision avoidance systems are created equally, some warn or alert while others override the driver to assist them in avoiding collisions and mitigating risk.
Automotive Head-Up Display
An automotive head-up display (HUD) safely displays essential system information to a driver at a vantage point that does not require the driver to look down or away from the road. Currently, the majority of the head-up displays on the market display system information on a windshield using LCDs.
Automotive Navigation System
Automotive navigation systems use the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) network to pinpoint the location of your car anywhere on the globe. The system in your car communicates with these satellites and displays the vehicle’s location on a local map. Car navigation systems provide on-screen instructions and voice prompts to help drivers follow a route while concentrating on the road. Some navigation systems can display exact traffic data and, if necessary, plan a new route to avoid traffic jams.
Traffic Sign Recognition
Traffic sign recognition is a technology by which a vehicle can recognize the traffic signs on the road such as speed limit, turn ahead, or stop. This system considers the sign’s shape such as hexagons and rectangles and the color to classify what the sign is communicating to the driver. Since most systems currently use camera-based technology, many factors can make the system less accurate. These include poor lighting conditions, extreme weather conditions, and partial obstruction of the sign.
Vehicle Communication Systems
Vehicle communication systems are computer networks in which vehicles and roadside units are the communicating nodes, providing each other with information such as safety warnings and traffic information. Vehicle communication systems come in three forms: vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to infrastructure, and vehicle to everything (V2X). Vehicle to vehicle communication enables vehicles to wirelessly exchange information about their speed, location, and heading. Vehicle to infrastructure communication is the wireless statewax change between vehicles and road infrastructure. V2X stands for vehicle to everything and refers to parsing information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle and vice versa.
Automotive Night Vision
Automotive night vision systems enable drivers to see things that would otherwise be difficult or impossible at night. This system will allow the vehicle to detect obstacles and pedestrians in a nighttime or heavy weather situation when the driver has low visibility. It uses various technologies including infrared sensors, GPS, lidar, and radar. There are two categories of night vision implementations: active night vision systems project infrared light and passive systems rely on the thermal energy that comes from cars, animals, and other objects. Such systems are offered as optional equipment on certain premium vehicles.
Rear View Camera
The rear view camera provides real-time video information regarding the location of your vehicle and its surroundings. The camera is located in the rear of your car and is connected to a display screen that shows you what is happening in the area behind the vehicle. This camera offers driver’s aid when backing up by providing a viewpoint that is typically a blind spot in traditional cars. The camera automatically turns on when the driver puts the car in reverse.
Omniview technology improves a driver’s visibility by offering a 360 degree viewing system. This system can accurately provide 3D peripheral images of the car’s surroundings through a video display outputted to the driver. In a common non-new system, there are four wide field cameras: one in the front of the vehicle, one in the back of the vehicle, one in the left rear view mirror, and one in the right outside mirror. The four cameras cover the whole area around the vehicle. Omniview technology uses the input of four cameras and a bird’s eye technology to provide a composite 3DD model of the surroundings.
Blind spots are the areas behind or at the side of the vehicle that the driver cannot see from the driver’s seat. Blind spot monitor involves cameras that monitor the driver’s blind spots and notify the driver if any obstacles come close to the vehicle. It uses a sensor device that detects other vehicles to the driver’s side and rear and the warnings can be visual, audible, or vibrating.
Driver Drowsiness Detection
Driver drowsiness detection aims to prevent collisions due to driver fatigue. The vehicle obtains information such as facial patterns, steering movement, driving habits, turn signal use, and driving velocity to determine if the driver’s activities correspond with drowsy driving. If drowsy driving is suspected, the vehicle will typically sound an alert and may vibrate the driver’s seat. Various studies have suggested that around 20 percent of all road accidents are fatigue related.
Intelligent Speed Adaptation
Intelligent speed adaptation involves advanced systems that assist drivers in sticking to the speed limit. This technology takes in the information of the vehicle’s position using a global navigation satellite system such as GPS and is linked to a speed zone database that allows the vehicle to know its location and the speed limit on that road. Some ISA systems allow the vehicle to adjust its speed to the relative speed limit. Other systems only warn the driver when they are going over the speed limit and leave it up to the driver to enforce the limit or not.
Adaptive Light Control System
Unlike traditional headlights which are in a fixed position and only capable of illuminating directly in front of you, adaptive headlights are not in the fixed place at all times. These headlights use electronic sensors that can detect your steering angle to swivel based on your car’s direction and also helps other drivers from being impacted by a vehicle’s headlights. This technology automatically dims headlights to a lower beam when oncoming traffic approaches and then brightens them once the traffic has passed.
Automatic Emergency Braking
If an imminent forward collision is detected, automatic emergency braking systems automatically apply brakes without waiting for the driver to react. The system uses sensors to see whether the driver is in the process of hitting another vehicle or other objects on the road. This application can measure the distance of nearby traffic and alert the driver to any danger. Some emergency braking systems can take preventive safety measures such as tightening seat belts, reducing speed, and engaging adaptive steering to avoid a collision.
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are designed to help prevent avoidable crashes. This system uses various technologies and sensors such as radar, lasers, cameras, GPS, and artificial intelligence. Not all collision avoidance systems are created equally, some warn or alert while others override the driver to assist them in avoiding collisions and mitigating risk. Automotive head-up displays, navigation systems, traffic sign recognition, vehicle communication systems, automotive night vision, rear view cameras, omniview technology, blindspot monitors, driver drowsiness detection, intelligent speed adaptation, adaptive light control systems, and automatic emergency braking are all examples of ADAS technologies that are currently available or in development.
It is important to note that while these technologies can be helpful in preventing collisions, they are not a substitute for safe driving practices. Drivers should always be aware of their surroundings and follow the rules of the road.